Dosage & Administration
Dosages are adjusted to maintain serum theophylline concentrations that provide optimal relief of symptoms with minimal side effects. Most of the controlled release preparations may be administered every 12 hours in adults while administration every 8 hours may be necessary in some children with markedly rapid hepatic metabolism of theophylline. The recommended dosages for achieving serum theophylline concentrations within the accepted therapeutic range is as follow:
- 1-6 months: 10 mg/Kg/day
- 6 months-1 year: 15 mg/Kg/day
- 1-9 years: 24 mg/Kg/day
- 10-16 years: 18 mg/Kg/day
- Adults: 10-15 mg/Kg/day
Hypersensitivity to xanthine derivatives. It is also contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease and in individuals with underlying seizure disorders (unless receiving appropriate anti-convulsing medication).
Theophylline should not be administered concurrently with other xanthine. Use with caution in patients with hypoxemia, hypertension, or those with history of peptic ulcer. Do not attempt to maintain any dose that is not tolerated.
The following side effects have been observed:
Gastrointestinal: Nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain and diarrhoea.
Central nervous system: Headache, irritability, restlessness, insomnia, muscles twitching.
Cardiovascular: Palpitation, tachycardia, hypotension. circulatory failure.
Renal: Potentiation of diuresis.
Others: Alopecia, hyperglycemia, rash etc.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy: It is not known whether Theophylline can cause foetal harm when administered to pregnant woman.Xanthines should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Nursing mother: Theophylline is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing human infants. Serious adverse effects in the infant are unlikely unless the mother has toxic serum Theophylline concentrations.