Amikacin is indicated in the short-term treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of Gram-negative bacteria. Amikacin is effective in bacterial septicemia (including neonatal sepsis); in serious infections of the respiratory tract, bones and joints, central nervous system (including meningitis) and skin and soft tissue; intra-abdominal infections (including peritonitis); and in burns and postoperative infections (including postvascular surgery). Clinical studies have shown Amikacin also to be effective in serious complicated and recurrent urinary tract infections due to those
Amikacin was effective in infections caused by gentamicin and/or tobramycin-resistant strains of Gram-negative organisms, particularly Proteus rettgeri, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Amikacin has also been shown to be effective in staphylococci infections and may be considered as initial therapy under certain conditions in the treatment of known or suspected staphylococcal disease such as, severe infections where the causative organism may be either a Gram-negative bacterium or a staphylococcus.
Amikacin Sulfate is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. Amikacin is active in vitro against pseudomonas species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Providencia species, Klebsiella-Enterobacter species, Acinetobacter species, and Citrobacter freundii. When strains of the above organisms are found to be resistant to other aminoglycosides, including Gentamicin, TobrAmykin and KanAmykin, many are susceptible to Amikacin. Amikacin sulfate is active in vitro against penicillinase and nonpenicillinase-producing Staphylococcus species including methicillin-resistant strains.
Adults and children: 15 mg/kg/day in two equally-divided doses (equivalent to 500 mg bid in adults). Use of the 100 mg is recommended for children for the accurate measurement of the appropriate dose.
Neonates and premature children: An initial loading dose of 10 mg/kg followed by 15 mg/kg/day in two equally divided doses.
Elderly: Doses should be adjusted under impaired renal function in elderly.
Life-threatening infections and/or those caused by pseudomonas: The adult dose may be increased to 500 mg every eight hours but should neither exceed 1.5 gm/day nor be administered for a period longer than 10 days. A maximum total adult dose of 15 gm should not be exceeded.
Urinary tract infections (Other than pseudomonal infections): 7.5 mg/kg/day in two equally divided doses (equivalent to 250 mg bid in adults). As the activity of amikacin is enhanced by increasing the pH, a urinary alkalising agent may be administered concurrently.
Intramuscular or intravenous administration: For most infections the intramuscular route is preferred, but in life threatening infections, or in patients in whom intramuscular injection route is not feasible the intravenous route may be used.
Intraperitoneal use: Amikacin may be used as an irrigant after recovery from anesthesia in concentration of 0.25%.
Other routes of administration: Amikacin in concentration of 0.25% may be used satisfactorily as an irrigating solution in abscess cavities, the pleural space, the peritoneum and the cerebral ventricles.
Concurrent administration of Amikacin with myorelaxants leads to potentiation of their effects and there is a possibility of cessation of the breathing. The combination with other Aminoglycoside antibiotics should be avoided because of the augmentation of their ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects. Concurrent administration of Amikacin with fast acting diuretics increases the risk of ototoxicity in patients with renal failure. Combination with Cephalosporins or Polymixins increases the risk of nephrotoxicity.
Amikacin injection is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to Amikacin.
When the recommended precautions and dosages are followed the incidence of toxic reactions, such as tinnitus, vertigo and partial reversible or irriversible deafness, skin rash, drug fever, headache, paraesthesia, nausea and vomiting is low. Urinary signs of renal irritation, azotaemia and oliguria have been reported.