Chloramphenicol is indicated in Ocular infections, Bacterial meningitis, Anaerobic bacterial infections, Anthrax, Brain abscess, Ehrlichiosis, Gas gangrene, Granuloma inguinale, Infections caused by H. influenzae, Listeriosis, Plague, Psittacosis, Q fever, Severe gastroenteritis, Severe melioidosis, Severe systemic infections with Camphylobacter fetus, Tularaemia, Whipple’s disease, Otitis externa
Ear Anti-Infectives & Antiseptics, Eye Anti-Infectives & Antiseptics
Chloramphenicol inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 50s subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus preventing peptide bond formation by peptidyl transferase. It has both bacteriostatic and bactericidal action against H. influenzae, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae.
Dosage & Administration
For Eye: Adults, children and infants (all age groups): One or two drops 4 to 6 times a day should be placed in the infected eyes. If necessary the frequency of dose can be increased. Treatment should be continued for approximately 7 days but should not be continued for more than three weeks without re-evaluation by the prescribing physician.
For Ear: 2 to 3 drops into ear canal thrice or four times daily.
Otic/Aural: Otitis externa: Instill 2-3 drops of a 5% solution into the ear bid-tid.
Oral: Bacterial meningitis, Anaerobic bacterial infections, Anthrax, Brain abscess, Ehrlichiosis, Gas gangrene, Granuloma inguinale, Infections caused by H. influenzae, Listeriosis, Plague, Psittacosis, Q fever, Severe gastroenteritis, Severe melioidosis, Severe systemic infections with Camphylobacter fetus, Tularaemia, Whipple’s disease:
Adult: 50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses increased to 100 mg/kg/day for meningitis or severe infections due to moderately resistant organisms. Continue treatment after the patient’s temperature has normalised for a further 4 days in rickettsial disease and 8-10 days in typhoid fever.
Child: Premature and full-term neonates: 25 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses. Full-term infants >2 wk: 50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses. Children: 50 mg/kg/day in 4 divided doses increased to 100 mg/kg/day for meningitis or severe infections.
Decreased effects of iron and vitamin B12 in anaemic patients. Phenobarbitone and rifampin reduce efficacy of chloramphenicol. Impairs the action of oral contraceptives.
History of hypersensitivity or toxic reaction to the drug; pregnancy, lactation; porphyria; parenteral admin for minor infections or as prophylaxis; preexisting bone marrow depression or blood dyscrasias.
Oral: GI symptoms; bleeding; peripheral and optic neuritis, visual impairment, blindness; encephalopathy, confusion, delirium, mental depression, headache. Haemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency.
ophthalmic application: Hypersensitivity reactions including rashes, fever and angioedema.
Ear drops: Ototoxicity.
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy Category C. Either studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus (teratogenic or embryocidal or other) and there are no controlled studies in women or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs should be given only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Impaired renal or hepatic function; premature and full-term neonates. Monitor plasma concentrations to avoid toxicity.
Cap/susp: Store at temp not exceeding 30°C.
Ophth/otic preparation: Store between 2-8°C. Do not freeze. Protect from light.